By E. Lisk. Moravian College.
The nurse deals with the whole person – the physical 20 mg cialis soft mastercard, emotional order cialis soft 20 mg overnight delivery, intellectual, and spiritual aspects – considering the ways that a person responds to treatment, disease, and the change in lifestyle that may be required by both. The nurse is the key health care provider in a position to assess the patient – physical, social, and emotional aspects – to administer therapy and medications, teach the patient how best to cope with the therapy, to ensure the most effectiveness, and evaluate the effectiveness of therapy. This requires a broad base of knowledge in the basic sciences (anatomy, physiology, nutrition, chemistry, pharmacology), the social sciences (sociology, psychology), and education (learning approaches, evaluation). Although all nursing theorists do not completely agree on the process that defines the practice of nursing, most conclude certain key elements in the nursing process. These elements are the basic components of the decision making or problem solving process: assessment (gathering of information), diagnosis (defining that information to arrive at some conclusions), and intervention (administering, education, comfort measures), and evaluation (determining the effects of the 8 interventions that were preformed). The use of this process each time a situation arises ensures a method of coping with the overwhelming scientific and technical aspects that each patient brings to the situation. Using the nursing process format in each instance of drug therapy will ensure that the patient receives the best, most efficient, scientifically based holistic care. Because the nurse is responsible for holistic care, these data must include information about physical, intellectual, emotional, social, and environmental factors. They will provide the nurse with information needed to plan discharge, plan educational programs, arrange for appropriate consultations, and monitor physical responses to treatment or to disease. The patient is not in a steady state, but is dynamic, adjusting to physical, emotional, and environmental influences. Each nurse develops a unique approach to the organization of the assessment; an approach that is functional and useful in the clinical setting and that makes sense to that nurse and that clinical situation. Drug therapy is a complex, integral, and important part of health care today, and the principles of drug therapy need to be incorporated into every patient assessment plan. The particular information that is needed and that should be assessed will vary with each drug, but the concepts involved are similar and are based on the principles of drug therapy. Two important areas that need to be assessed are history and physical presentation. Chronic Conditions: These may be contraindicated to the use of a drug or may require that caution be used or that drug dosage be adjusted. Drug Use: Prescription drugs, over the counter drugs, street drugs, alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine all may have an impact on the effect of a drug.
These can be counted using an electronic cell counter at the settings for enumerating platelets discount cialis soft 20 mg on line. Which of the following statements regarding Answers to Questions 4–6 the L/S ratio is true? Sphingomyelin levels increase during the third constant throughout gestation and serves as an trimester generic 20 mg cialis soft, causing the L/S ratio to fall slightly internal reference. Meconium contains less lecithin during the last 2 weeks of gestation than amniotic ﬂuid and will usually decrease the D. Which of the following conditions is most likely its presence indicates fetal lung maturity. Centrifugation at 1,000 × g for 10 minutes 3:1 more closely correlates with fetal lung maturity D. Centrifuge speed is below expected levels should be the minimum required to spin down cells C. Samples that cannot levels than expected for the time of gestation be measured immediately should be refrigerated D. Samples are stable for up to 3 days at 2 days following delivery, stillbirth, or abortion 2°C–8°C and for months when frozen at –20°C or lower. Meconium and blood may also introduce Body ﬂuids/Correlate clinical and laboratory data/ errors when measuring the L/S ratio. Blood has Chorionic gonadotropin/2 an L/S ratio of approximately 2:1 and will falsely raise the L/S ratio when fetal lungs are immature and depress the L/S ratio when fetal lungs are mature. In ectopic pregnancy, the expected increase between consecutive days is below normal. Which of the following statements regarding Answers to Questions 7–10 pregnancy testing is true? Because monoclonal antibodies are Body ﬂuids/Apply principles of basic laboratory derived from mouse hybridomas, rare false positives procedures/Pregnancy test/2 may occur in patients who have antimouse Ig 8.